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Vertigo, Dizziness & Balance

1. What is Vertigo, Dizziness & Balance?

Vertigo, dizziness, and balance disorders are common ENT conditions that affect a person’s sense of balance and spatial orientation. These conditions often result in sensations of spinning, unsteadiness, or lightheadedness, which can significantly impact one’s quality of life.

2. What are the causes?

Several factors can contribute to vertigo, dizziness, and balance issues, including:
  1. Inner Ear Disorders : Conditions like benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere’s disease, and vestibular neuritis can disrupt the inner ear’s normal function, leading to dizziness.
  2. Vestibular Migraines : Migraines can trigger vertigo and dizziness in some individuals.
  3. Medications : Certain medications may cause dizziness as a side effect.
  4. Head Injuries : Traumatic head injuries can damage the inner ear or vestibular system.
  5. Other Health Conditions : Conditions like low blood pressure, anemia, or neurological disorders can contribute to balance problems.

3. How common is the condition?

Vertigo, dizziness, and balance disorders are relatively common, affecting millions of people worldwide. The prevalence varies with age, with older adults being more susceptible.

4. What can an ENT Specialist do for you?

ENT specialists play a crucial role in diagnosing and managing vertigo and balance disorders.

They provide the following services :


Through a comprehensive evaluation, including a medical history review and specialized tests like videonystagmography (VNG) or electronystagmography (ENG), an ENT specialist can pinpoint the underlying cause of the patient’s symptoms.

Treatment Planning

Once the cause is determined, the specialist can develop a personalized treatment plan that may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle modifications.

Surgical Intervention

In cases where conservative treatments are ineffective or when structural issues in the ear are causing the problem, surgical intervention may be recommended.

5. How can the condition be treated?

The treatment approach for vertigo, dizziness, and balance disorders depends on the underlying cause and the
severity of symptoms.

Common treatment options include :


Medications may be prescribed to alleviate symptoms, control underlying conditions, or manage vestibular symptoms.

Physical Therapy

Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is a specialized form of physical therapy designed to improve balance and reduce symptoms through specific exercises.

Lifestyle Modifications

Dietary changes, stress management, and modifications in daily activities may help manage symptoms in certain cases.


Surgical interventions are considered when other treatments fail or when structural abnormalities in the inner ear are identified as the root cause.

6. Guidelines for Surgery

Surgical options for vertigo and balance disorders may include:

  • Labyrinthectomy : This procedure involves removing the inner ear’s balance system to eliminate vertigo symptoms, usually in cases of severe Meniere’s disease.
  • Vestibular Nerve Section (Neurectomy) : This surgery severs the vestibular nerve to alleviate vertigo in conditions like vestibular schwannoma.
  • Canal Plugging : For BPPV, a common cause of vertigo, a surgeon may plug or close the affected semicircular canal to prevent abnormal fluid movement.
  • Endolymphatic Sac Surgery : This procedure aims to reduce fluid pressure in the inner ear and is often used in the treatment of Meniere’s disease.

7. Evaluation & Follow Up for Treatment

After treatment, regular follow-up appointments with the ENT specialist are essential to monitor the patient’s
progress, adjust treatment as needed, and ensure long-term management of symptoms.

8. Risks of Surgery

Surgical interventions carry certain risks, including hearing loss, infection, balance issues, and complications related to anesthesia. The specific risks depend on the type of surgery performed and the patient’s individual health.

9. Alternatives to Surgery

Whenever possible, non-surgical treatments like medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications are explored before considering surgical options. These alternatives aim to improve symptoms and quality of life without the need for invasive procedures.

In conclusion, vertigo, dizziness, and balance disorders can have a significant impact on an individual’s daily life.ENT specialists are well-equipped to diagnose and manage these conditions, offering a range of treatments,including surgery when necessary. Patients can benefit from tailored treatment plans and regular follow-up care to achieve better control over their symptoms and improved quality of life.